Page 9 of 19 < 1 2 ... 7 8 9 10 11 ... 18 19 >
Topic Options
#1016387 - 01/10/2011 16:43 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Paradoxical trends
Manilla Smoothed Monthly Anomalies of Climate Variables
Parametric Plots
Update for September 2011

September values are paradoxical.They show sudden reversals of trend and unusual relationships between the attributes.

Daily maximum temperature anomaly (x-axis, all graphs), which had been accelerating upwards, fell suddenly below normal.
Monthly rainfall anomaly (y-axis, top left graph), from very low in July, became extremely high.
Cloudiness (top right graph) fell suddenly (despite heavy rain) to a low value that was normal three years ago, but not since.
Dew Point anomaly (centre left), having been briefly near normal in August, resumed a trend to extreme aridity.
Temperature range anomaly (centre right) hovered near normal.
Daily minimum temperature anomaly (bottom left) suddenly fell even faster than that of daily maximum temperature
Subsoil temperature anomaly (bottom right), which had been above normal, fell along with daily maximum temperature anomaly.

Note:
New data for September 2011 allow updating with more smoothing applied to all months back to March 2011, which is now fully smoothed. Fully smoothed data - gaussian smoothing with half-width 6 months - are plotted in red, partly smoothed data uncoloured, and unsmoothed data for the last data point in orange. January data points are marked by squares.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1023937 - 25/10/2011 00:38 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Manilla temperature matches sea surface temperature.

Smoothed daily maximum temperature anomalies for 140 months at Manilla, NSW are compared with NINO3.4 region Sea Surface Temperature anomalies. They match very closely, especially at peaks and troughs of the Southern Oscillation. The first graph is a log of the data as described in the notes below.
The match can be improved, as in the second graph, by making two adjustments. The reference periods for the anomalies are not the same. In any case it is pure coincidence that the temperature values are so close. I have chosen to add 0.2 degrees to the Manilla figures. At several of the major peaks and troughs the Manilla temperature leads the Sea Surface temperature by one month. I have chosen to lag all the Manilla temperatures by one month.

The third graph quantifies the remaining discrepancies. For most of this short record, the adjusted, one-month lagged Manilla smoothed daily maximum temperatures agreed with ENSO3.4 Sea Surface Temperatures within a margin of 0.5 degrees. Periods when the discrepancy was greater are noted on the graph.

At first (Sep-99 to Nov-00: 15 months) Manilla temperatures were in phase with the Southern Oscillation but one degree warmer.
For a time (Dec-00 to Dec-01: 13 months) there was no agreement.
From Jan-02 to Jun-03 (18 months) temperatures agreed.
From Jul-03 to May-06 (35 months) there was again no agreement.
In the long period (59 months) from Jun-06 to the end of the record in Apr-11, temperatures agreed except for one interruption: Manilla temperature lagged by three months at the La Nina trough of Feb-08, causing a discrepancy of minus one degrees.
In the 140-month record, Manilla temperatures faithfully followed Sea Surface temperatures in 77 months (55%), and were in phase in another 15 months (11%). Times when there were large discrepancies were generally times when the Southern Oscillation was near-neutral.

Notes
1. High frequency noise is reduced in the case of the Manilla monthly data by a gaussian smoothing function of half-width six months. (As used in other posts on this thread.)
2. On advice, I represent the El Nino - Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) by the ENSO3.4 area anomalies from the OISSTv2 data set:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/sstoi.indices
My enquiries are in this other thread:
http://forum.weatherzone.com.au/ubbthrea..._da#Post1016040
The ensemble of sea surface temperatures does not have much high-frequency noise. There is some, however, and I have used the same smoothing as used in the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), that is, a running mean of each three monthly values.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1024825 - 28/10/2011 12:33 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Most Manilla recent rainfall extremes reflect NINO3.4 sea surface temperature

The graphs below are like those in my post above, but show how Manilla monthly rainfall anomalies, rather than maximum temperature anomalies relate to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Most people using ENSO seem to want to predict Australian regional rainfall.
The "Notes" about the data sets in the above post apply.

In the second graph I have improved the match at peaks and troughs of smoothed Manilla monthly rainfall anomalies and NINO3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly data in two ways.
1. I converted the sea surface temperature anomaly (degrees C) into a model of resultant rainfall anomaly (mm) by multiplying by minus fifteen.
2. I added 3.7 mm of rainfall to the Manilla figures, and I lagged the data by two months.

To the eye, the over-all correspondence between actual and modelled rainfall is good, but not quite as good as in the temperature graphs. One form of mis-match is that two of the greatest rainfall deficits ("El Nino" Nov-06, Dec-09) are broader and shallower than in the model. (Perhaps an arithmetic measure of rainfall anomaly is not the best.)

The third graph shows how much Manilla rainfall, as adjusted, differs from the rainfall "predicted" by the NINO3.4 model. Dashed lines show limits of a good match at +/- 7.5 mm (corresponding to +/-0.5 degrees). The nature of each larger discrepancy is noted.

A good match demands lagging actual rainfall at Manilla by two months. That implies that peaks and troughs in Manilla rainfall anomalies happen two months before the matching anomalies of NINO3.4. I wonder if prediction is even practical if that is the case.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1025357 - 30/10/2011 12:12 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
The Fishman Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 06/12/2004
Posts: 1139
Loc: Always in the wrong place.
Is there a similar data stream for metropolitan Melbourne? Bulleen area? As I think that in the past couple of years October has been getting colder. I don't remember wearing a jumper or putting on the heater 2 days before Melbourne Cup and struggling to get to 30 degrees for 6 months.

It was mid March the last time we were over 30, we have had a couple of 29s but I am 43 years old and when I was in my teens, October was a lot warmer and also the Thunderstorms we had were more vigorous and more often. Now we have a few rumbles every so often.

I have lived in Melbourne's northeastern suburbs for all of my life and can't remember winter being in October. Maybe I am losing my mind and suffering from Groundhog Day,

I would love to prove or disprove it.

Thanks
_________________________
26 November, 31 December 2009, 1 January, 11 February, 6 March, 2, 9 December 2010, December 24, 25 2011, October 27, 2014, January 3, 2016 (Kilmore and Lancefield)

Top 11 Storms in chronological order.

Top
#1025940 - 31/10/2011 18:29 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: The Fishman]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
The Fishman,
I am sure your post here refers to my graph of October temperatures posted in another thread: "Indoor Climate".
This present thread seems the best place to discuss the sequence of October temperatures.

Your climate at Bulleen must be like that of Latrobe University at Bundoora on the Bureau of Meteorology web-site.



Bundoora October mean daily max, mean daily min and mean daily mean temperatures from 1979 are shown in this graph. They are compared with Manilla figures. The Manilla mean is 4.4 degrees higher, and the daily temperature range, at 16.2 degrees, is very much wider than the 10.9 degrees of Bundoora.

I guess that the perception of cold weather depends mainly on daily maximum temperature. In the Bulleen/ Bundoora area there is very little movement in most of the October daily maximum temperature record. Values hover near the mean of 19.5 degrees. The last three Octobers have been very close to that mean.
I am sorry to say that October does not seem to have been warmer 25 to 30 years ago, as you recollect. However, after a bitterly cold October 2003 (cold here too), every October from 2005 to 2008 was much warmer. People may have acclimatised to those persistent higher temperatures.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1026977 - 05/11/2011 16:00 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Suddenly cold and wet
Manilla Smoothed Monthly Anomalies of Climate Variables
Parametric Plots
Update for October 2011


Raw values of some climate variables for October 2011 are like those of October 2010 which, when smoothed, turned out to be a record cold-wet climate peak. Parametric plots for October 2010 are here or, with better resolution, here.

Using the two sets of graphs, one can see:
1. Raw data values and little-smoothed data values flail around wildly, but the fully-smoothed values near October 2010 in the later graphs trace simpler, more regular curves with points more closely spaced.
2. The approach routes to the two raw data October values were quite different.

To compare this October with last October, I take each attribute in turn, and discuss:
(a) From the earlier graphs: October 2010 raw values;
(b) From the later graphs: October 2010 smoothed values;
(c) From the later graphs: October 2011 raw values.

Max temp anomaly values (x-axis, all graphs)
(a) Max temp raw values leading to October 2010 fell from normal to extremely low values taking six months;
(b) The max temp smoothed value for October 2010 became the peak of a cold time: a new record low;
(c) Max temp raw values leading to October 2011 fell from normal to extremely low values (LIKE 2010) taking only two months (UNLIKE 2010).

Rainfall anomaly values (y-axis, top left graphs)
(a) Extremely high rainfall in October 2010 followed values that had been rising steadily for eight months;
(b) The smoothed rainfall value for October 2010 became the peak of a wet time: a near-record wet;
(c) Extremely high rainfall in October 2011 (UNLIKE 2010) followed even higher rainfall in September, but normal rainfall just before that.

Cloud anomaly values (y-axis, top right graphs)
(a) Extreme cloudiness in October 2010 followed values that had been rising steadily for ten months;
(b) The smoothed cloudiness value for October 2010 was near the November 2010 peak of a cloudy time: a record for smoothed cloudiness;
(c) Extremely cloudiness in October 2011 (UNLIKE 2010) broke a 10-month trend towards LESS cloudiness.

Dew Point anomaly values (y-axis, centre left graphs)
(a) Very high Dew Points in Aug-Sep-Oct 2010 followed values that had been rising steadily for almost a year;
(b) The smoothed Dew Point value for October 2010 became the peak of a humid time: a near-record;
(c) The Dew Point in October 2011 (UNLIKE 2010) was NOT very high: it was still below normal (i.e. arid) following five months of even lower values.

Temperature Range anomaly values (y-axis, centre right graphs)
(a) Extremely low temperature range in October 2010 followed even lower values;
(b) The smoothed temperature range value for October 2010 was close to the September 2010 record peak low value (-2.80 degrees), more than twice as low as the earlier record set in June 2007 (-1.09 degrees);
(c) The temperature range in October 2011 (UNLIKE 2010) was not very low, but it was much lower than the normal values of the preceding six months.

Min temp anomaly values (y-axis, bottom left graphs)
(a) The min temp in October 2010 was normal, following a full year of very high values;
(b) The smoothed min temp for October 2010 was rather high and falling steadily;
(c) The min temps in September and October 2011 (UNLIKE 2010) were very low, following six months of normal values (UNLIKE 2010).

Subsoil temp anomaly values (y-axis, bottom right graphs)
(a) Extremely low subsoil temp in October 2010 followed a rapid fall in the preceding two months;
(b) The smoothed subsoil temp value for October 2010 was near the peak (November 2010) of a near-record time of low subsoil temp;
(c) As in October 2010, extremely low subsoil temp in October 2011 followed a rapid fall in the preceding two months (LIKE 2010).

Note:
New data for September 2011 allow updating with more smoothing applied to all months back to March 2011, which is now fully smoothed. Fully smoothed data - gaussian smoothing with half-width 6 months - are plotted in red, partly smoothed data uncoloured, and unsmoothed data for the last data point in orange. January data points are marked by squares.
Blue diamonds and the dashed blue rectangle show the extreme values in the fully smoothed data record since September 1999.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1029936 - 12/11/2011 22:29 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Most recent Manilla Dew Point extremes lead ENSO extremes by three months

The graphs below are like those in two previous posts, but show how Manilla's smoothed monthly Dew Point anomalies relate to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

The "notes" about the data sets in Post #1023937 apply.



High values of Sea Surface Temperature (NINO3.4) add moisture to the atmosphere increasing humidity in affected areas. As humidity data for Manilla NSW, I estimate Dew Points daily at sunrise. Dew Points, like Sea Surface Temperatures, are expressed in degrees celsius, but corresponding anomalies take the opposite sense. The first graph plots [minus the Manilla Dew Point anomaly] and the NINO3.4 anomaly. To improve the match, I have lagged the Manilla Dew Points by three months. As an example, I have noted the match of Manilla's November 2005 humidity peak with the La Nina peak of February 2006.
To the eye, the over-all match is better than in either the rainfall or the maximum temperature plots of earlier posts. The two curves here match very well up to 2007.

The second graph shows the discrepancy between the two curves. Dashed lines show limits of a good match at +/-0.5 degrees. The nature of each larger discrepancy is noted. ("Here" in text boxes means "at Manilla".)
After 2007 there are large mis-matches between Manilla Dew Point and ENSO. Dew Point fluctuations suddenly become less than might be expected from NINO3.4 values. It may be relevant that, as I posted in July 2010, skies suddenly became very much cloudier at Manilla after August 2007 than before that month.

I have tried plotting other variables against NINO3.4:
Daily minimum temperature;
Daily temperature range;
Percent cloudy mornings;
Subsoil temperature.
None of them matches NINO3.4 well enough to display.

The three sets of graphs show "teleconnections" between Pacific equatorial Sea Surface Temperatures and climate variables at Manilla in inland NSW. Climatic peaks come earlier at Manilla than in the Pacific:
Peaks of daily maximum temperature come one month earlier;
peaks of rainfall come two months earlier;
peaks of Dew Point come three months earlier.

In a simple-minded way, it seems to me more likely that Australia's climate drives the Southern Oscillation than the other way around. I know that this is speculation. (Sort of like Abraham Ortellius suggesting in 1587 that Africa and South America might have drifted apart.)
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1030300 - 13/11/2011 19:31 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Originally Posted By: Surly Bond
High values of Sea Surface Temperature (NINO3.4) add moisture to the atmosphere increasing humidity in affected areas.

Sorry about that. High SST's in area NINO3.4 typify El Nino events which do not lead to high humidity in Australia, but low humidity. That is what my graph shows.

No-one complained, so perhaps there is no-one there. cry
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1030303 - 13/11/2011 19:32 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Seabreeze Offline
Weatherzone Moderator

Registered: 18/09/2005
Posts: 10643
Loc: South West Rocks, NSW
Surly, how were the storms this afternoon/evening in Manilla?
_________________________
South West Rocks, NSW Mid North Coast:
May 2019 Rainfall: 35.6mm (May Avg. 129.5mm) // May 2019 Raindays: 6 (May Avg. 11.1 raindays)
Year-to-date Rainfall: 464.0mm (Jan-May Avg. 795.9mm) // Year-to-date Raindays: 65 (Jan-May Avg. 66.9 raindays)

Top
#1030304 - 13/11/2011 19:36 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Seabreeze]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Vigorous. evillaugh
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1036800 - 30/11/2011 22:50 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Bizarre values
Manilla Smoothed Monthly Anomalies of Climate Variables
Parametric Plots
Update for November 2011


Most raw values for variables for November 2011 are bizarre. The rainfall anomaly (top left) is so high the scale has had to be extended by four times. The daily max temp anomaly (all graphs, x-axis) has jumped from very low to high. High temperature seldom occurs with high rainfall, but that is thought to be normal in an interglacial climate. Similarly for the high Dew Point (centre left) with high max temp. Two other temperatures jumped up along with max temp: min temp, and subsoil temp.

Fully-smoothed data points are now available for the autumn months of 2011. Each variable showed a steady trend in one direction (but this did not continue through winter).
Max temp increased towards normal.
Rainfall decreased through normal.
Cloudiness was high but decreasing.
Dew Point (humidity) was below normal and falling very rapidly.
Temperature Range was rising towards normal.
Min temp was falling through normal as max temp was rising, continuing an 8-month trend from equable towards extreme.
Subsoil temp increased with max temp.


Note:
New data for November 2011 allow updating with more smoothing applied to all months back to May 2011, which is now fully smoothed. Fully smoothed data - gaussian smoothing with half-width 6 months - are plotted in red, partly smoothed data uncoloured, and unsmoothed data for the last data point in orange. January data points are marked by squares.
Blue diamonds and the dashed blue rectangle show the extreme values in the fully smoothed data record since September 1999.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1038681 - 05/12/2011 17:02 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Cliffhanger Offline
Weather Freak

Registered: 27/01/2011
Posts: 320
Loc: Brisbane, Qld
Bizarre weather in North qld. Looks like a replica of last year. I hope Not.
_________________________
www.australianradaranomalies.wordpress.com For those souls who want to know more then what you are allowed to talk about!!
climate change, cloud seeding information,and of course anything radar. cheers everyone!!!.

Top
#1050702 - 30/12/2011 23:11 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Cliffhanger]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Extreme changes
Manilla Smoothed Monthly Anomalies of Climate Variables
Parametric Plots
Update for December 2011

Raw values for some anomalies leap from one extreme to another from November to December 2011. Daily maximum temperature (X-axis, all graphs), from a very high value in November, went to such a remarkably low value (-4.7) that the scale had to be extended by two degrees.
On the top left graph, the rainfall anomaly returned from an extreme positive value to near zero. Taking max temp and rainfall together, November values were part-way towards the climate of an interglacial epoch, while December values were part-way towards that of a glacial epoch. The centre left graph, including Dew Point anomaly, shows the same effect: hot humid (interglacial) jumping to cold arid (glacial).
While daily temperature range (centre right graph) changed little, daily minimum temperature (bottom left graph) moved with max temp from an extreme of hot days and hot nights to a greater extreme of cold days and cold nights.
I believe the combination of cold days, cold nights and low Dew Points is unusual in Australia. (I am open to correction on that.)
The November and December values mentioned are far beyond the normal limits (dashed blue lines) set by smoothed data points since 1999. The June 2011 value for Dew Point anomaly, now fully smoothed, requires the line to be moved. It sets a new lower limit for smoothed Dew Point anomaly: minus 1.58 degrees. Next month may see the July 2011 value set a new record.
Except for humid November 2011, Dew Points at Manilla have now shown remarkable aridity for eight months.

Note:
New data for December 2011 allow updating with more smoothing applied to all months back to June 2011, which is now fully smoothed. Fully smoothed data - gaussian smoothing with half-width 6 months - are plotted in red, partly smoothed data uncoloured, and unsmoothed data for the last data point in orange. January data points are marked by squares.
Blue diamonds and the dashed blue rectangle show the extreme values in the fully smoothed data record since September 1999.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1050822 - 31/12/2011 12:36 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
December 2011 my lowest maximum temperature anomaly
Here is a scatter-plot of mean monthly values of daily minimum versus daily maximum temperature anomalies at Manilla since March 1999.

December 2011 had the lowest daily maximum anomaly (-4.7) and the lowest daily mean anomaly (-3.6). Next lowest was February 2008 (- 4.2 and -3.3). These negative anomalies are smaller than the positive anomalies in the heat-wave of November 2009.
Extreme values of daily maximum anomalies tend to occur with extreme values of daily minimum anomalies. These affect the linear trend, but the R-squared value is very low. The most extreme low value of daily minimum anomaly, -3.6, and the second most extreme high value, +3.1, occur with daily maximum anomalies that are not extreme, but neutral.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
#1050987 - 01/01/2012 09:51 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Surly Bond]
Graham M Offline
Weather Freak

Registered: 21/01/2002
Posts: 430
Loc: Boambee East near Coffs Harbou...
Surly Bond, you do have fun making graphs, don't you? Here's one of mine, just for the heck of it. It shows average temperatures at Boambee East near Coffs Harbour, by month, since I got my first AWS and wrote software for it in 1993. Note that December 2011 was the coldest December I've recorded and November 2011 the equal hottest November.

Top
#1050992 - 01/01/2012 10:03 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Graham M]
Graham M Offline
Weather Freak

Registered: 21/01/2002
Posts: 430
Loc: Boambee East near Coffs Harbou...
Here's a better link ...


Top
#1050998 - 01/01/2012 10:31 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Graham M]
GrizzlyBear Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/06/2011
Posts: 2359
Loc: Yetholme [1180m] Central Table...
Very good GrahamM, you have some good work there. I am just wondering, if you ran a linear regression through all your data by using a monthly moving mean what trend line you would get?. That is at the end of each month you take the 12 month mean ending that month and then plot a graph of those figures and apply a linear regression to that graph. Your graph would be made up of 12x(number years) records of annual mean. This is what I do but still have a slight up trend. Looking at those monthly graphs there really seems to be no clear trend overall, maybe you will not have an uptrend like me.

Top
#1051058 - 01/01/2012 14:02 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: GrizzlyBear]
Graham M Offline
Weather Freak

Registered: 21/01/2002
Posts: 430
Loc: Boambee East near Coffs Harbou...
You're talking in riddles, Peter. It's a long time since I did maths at uni.

My conclusion from my graphs is that there's really no evidence of warming in my neck of the woods over eighteen years. The only months which just might show an upward trend are September and November. Mind you, the vegetation in my back yard has grown quite a bit over that time, so any true scientist would probably scoff at the figures anyway!

Top
#1051067 - 01/01/2012 14:58 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: Graham M]
GrizzlyBear Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/06/2011
Posts: 2359
Loc: Yetholme [1180m] Central Table...
I do not scoff at your vegetated setting for observations, on the contrary I completely agree with a well vegetated setting for your observations. I believe the vegetation helps smooth your observations and provides for much better quality data.

Top
#1052756 - 07/01/2012 14:13 Re: Observations of climate variation [Re: GrizzlyBear]
Surly Bond Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 23/08/2003
Posts: 2175
Loc: Manilla, near Tamworth NSW
Graham M
My December graph, like yours, would fit a parabolic trend line, with the high point of the curve about 2005.
I haven't mentioned this because, as in your data, December is the only month with a trend like that.
_________________________
Data are cheap; information is expensive!

Top
Page 9 of 19 < 1 2 ... 7 8 9 10 11 ... 18 19 >


Who's Online
1 registered (1 invisible), 47 Guests and 3 Spiders online.
Key: Admin, Global Mod, Mod
Today's Birthdays
Akky, jade emperor_dup1, Seb
Forum Stats
29932 Members
32 Forums
24151 Topics
1525477 Posts

Max Online: 2985 @ 26/01/2019 12:05
Satellite Image