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#1367524 - 27/02/2016 02:00 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3585
Loc: Adelaide
1906 widespread snow showers Monday 27th August and on Mt Lofty August 28th (continued from above post)
Charles Todd folios and weather maps.

Here are the links to the folios for Saturday 25th to Tuesday 28th August 1906:
http://charlestodd.net/Todd_Folios/web/19060825.html
http://charlestodd.net/Todd_Folios/web/19060826.html
http://charlestodd.net/Todd_Folios/web/19060827.html
http://charlestodd.net/Todd_Folios/web/19060828.html

Below are weather maps for Saturday 25th, Monday 27th and Tuesday 28th August 1906. I've copied these from images of newspaper clippings in the folios I've given links to above. It seems weather maps weren't prepared on Sundays then. I haven't studied the meteorologist's reports that accompany these weather maps and they may contain further information for anyone researching this snowfall. If these links should change in the future, it should be easy to find the new locations by tracking them down on the Charles Todd website in whatever form it takes or new address it may have.






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#1367709 - 29/02/2016 00:37 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3585
Loc: Adelaide
1906 (continued): reports of snow being seen in 1906 on occasions other than the August 27-28th event (and the two days preceding 27th).

I found reports of snow being seen on three other occasions in 1906 additional to the substantial 27-28th August snow event. As I found only one report of each it would appear that they were all minor or pretty local falls or perhaps one of the other kinds of icy flakes or particles misinterpreted as snow. A more detailed search in the future might find more information on these. Generally speaking I've found that in this first decade of the twentieth century substantial snowfalls seen in or from some towns were enthusiastically reported by some of the newspapers of the day. Here are the three reports.

Border Watch (Mount Gambier, SA : 1861 - 1954) Saturday 7 July 1906 Page 4.
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/77582535

"NARRACOORTE.
(From our own Correspondent.)
July 2. [Monday - Miles]
... We have had exceptionally cold and boisterous weather all the week. At times the wind has been blowing a gale, whilst heavy rain has been falling. The country around is pretty well flooded, the creeks being high and the water holes full and overflowing. It has also been exceptionally cold Several of the resident say they saw snow falling on Friday [29th June - Miles] morning."

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article77582535
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page7718762
APA citation
NARRACOORTE. (1906, July 7). Border Watch (Mount Gambier, SA : 1861 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved February 14, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article77582535

**********************************************************************************************************

The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Thursday 26 July 1906 Page 3.
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/57021482

{quoting only snow-relevant text}

"MELROSE, July 19.óSteady rain set in early this morning, and fell continuously for hours. The weather for the past three or four days has been in marked contrast to the mild conditions of last week, and it was not surprising when the clouds permitted a view of the top of Mount Remarkable this morning, to find that there had been a heavy fall of snow. The top remained white for some time, but the clouds which hunr about prevented a good view being obtained of more than a portion at once."

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article57021482
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page4424914
APA citation
THE SEASON. (1906, July 26). The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), p. 3. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article57021482

**********************************************************************************************************

The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Monday 8 October 1906 Page 6.
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/56683839

{quoting only snow-relevant text}
Item published on Monday 8 October so October 4 was a Thursday and October 3 was a Wednesday so probably the snowfall was on Wednesday 3rd October - Miles.

"JAMESTOWN. October 4.ó ... On Wednesday the annual picnic was held at part of Canowie Estate. A novelty was experienced for picnickers in the shape of a fall of snow for a short time in the afternoon."

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article56683839
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page4426740
APA citation
A ROUGH PASSAGE. (1906, October 8). The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), p. 6. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article56683839

**********************************************************************************************************
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#1379925 - 20/06/2016 09:58 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Fonzie Offline
Cloud Gazer

Registered: 12/07/2015
Posts: 9
Loc: Adelaide Hills
Hi all, Iím a learner and have a question - What would be the key requirements you would like to see on the charts that will give a good chance of snowing around the higher parts of the Adelaide hills.
Thanks

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#1379930 - 20/06/2016 11:34 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Eevo Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 02/11/2013
Posts: 1598
Loc: Bridgewater
great question
a cold pool of air

i find it interesting that it snowed on ayers rock once!

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#1380007 - 21/06/2016 04:34 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Fonzie]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3585
Loc: Adelaide
Notes on forecasting snow in the southern and central Mt Lofty Ranges :

1. There needs to be showers or rain forecast. No precipitating clouds means no snowfall.
2. The air temperature from the ground up to the top of the shower- or rain-producing clouds needs to be at or below zero degrees. If there's any substantial layer of air above zero, snowflakes falling through it will completely or partially melt and the snowcrystal structure will be lost. The temperature at ground level can be a bit above zero (not more than about one to one and a half degrees) but only if it's a very shallow layer of air maybe a hundred metres deep and the flakes don't have time to melt.
3. If the automatic weather station near the top of Mt Lofty reads over two degrees above zero that's too warm except in some rare circumstances. Even one and a half is iffy. You need to hope that coming showers or rain will cool the air down to near zero.
4. Snow in the Lofties almost always falls when a very cold air mass comes up from deep in the southern ocean. The further south the better and the quicker it gets here the better.
5. Usually very cold air comes up between a deep low in the general vicinity of Tasmania or Tasmanian longitudes, and a medium to strong high pressure system south of the Bight. A strong pressure gradient between the low and the high can propel very cold air up the western side of the low and over southern South Australia.
We watch the computer forecasting model charts for very cold air masses coming towards southern South Australia from the deep south-west or south. Fortunately the northern boundary of cold air masses on relevant forecast charts is marked by a blue line which is the boundary of the predicted freezing level at 1000 metre above sea level. North of the blue line the air is predicted to be above zero at 100om above sea level and south of the line it's predicted to be below zero.
There's an example on the first chart below showing a gfs forecast chart for this coming Thursday at 930am. We can see a blue line on the chart over the ocean south of SA and it's coming towards southern SA so that's a start.
The highest point in the southern and central Mt Lofty Ranges is the summit of Mt Lofty at about 727m above sea level. So as a first approximation we need the air mass to be about zero at 727 metres.
So we not only want that blue line to come over the Lofties but the even colder air south of the blue line.
Now not being experts at chart reading at various levels in the atmosphere and soundings, we are going to switch our attention to watching forecasts to see if they mention the possibility of snow falling while the air south of the blue line is over the Mt Lofty Ranges. Two of the best guides to whether there's the possibility of snow are the general Bureau of Meteorology state and district forecasts. If the possibility of snow in the lofties is mentioned in BoM forecasts then we know we need to prepare for action, because BoM in my experience doesn't mention the possibility of snow lightly. It doesn't mean it will snow but only in rare circumstance can anyone forecast that snow is very probable in SA so we often deal with marginal iffy borderline situations.
The other BoM forecasting tool is MetEye and we need to learn how to use MetEye and get used to its ways.
Go here http://www.bom.gov.au/sa/forecasts/index.shtml and under the heading Graphical Views click on MetEye. When MetEye comes onto your screen, scroll down till you find Storms, Snow, Fog, Frost ... and click on it, and then in the new view click on the button for Snow. Explore from there - usually if it predicts any snow for South Australia we see one or two or a few little blue pixels on the highest summits which stay for one or two or three of the three-hour periods. You can get your eye in for what snow pixels look like by looking across to Victoria and NSW where there are often many snow pixels in winter.

Meteye is currently in my recent experience the best Bureau of Meteorology guide to whether it will snow in the coming few days. It needs to be kept an eye on though, because pixels eg for this coming Thursday night might appear on Wednesday but be gone on Thursday morning. As I say, we're usually pretty much on the borderline as to whether it's cold enough for a reasonable chance of a snow-shower. Below is the current Meteye snow chart for 330am this Friday and it shows no snow pixels for SA but there are a few in western Victoria and many further east in the snow country.

I've prepared this at speed so it could contain mistakes, and others with knowledge of the subject may wish to correct or add to it.






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#1380019 - 21/06/2016 08:23 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Fonzie Offline
Cloud Gazer

Registered: 12/07/2015
Posts: 9
Loc: Adelaide Hills
Wow thatís great Unstable. Thanks for that.
So is the blue line the 540?
I noticed this morning sky weather use the blue line, it showed some possible light falls early Friday - I don't think it was for the Adelaide area though....further north?

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#1380036 - 21/06/2016 09:45 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Fonzie]
berga1987 Offline
Weather Freak

Registered: 04/08/2010
Posts: 336
Loc: Malvern, Adelaide, Aus
The mid north of SA would probably see snow more consistently year in year out than Mt Lofty. Mt Bryan is a good spot.
_________________________
I wish Mt Lofty was more lofty, another 2km or so would suffice.

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#1380037 - 21/06/2016 10:09 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: berga1987]
Eevo Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 02/11/2013
Posts: 1598
Loc: Bridgewater
Originally Posted By: berga1987
The mid north of SA would probably see snow more consistently year in year out than Mt Lofty. Mt Bryan is a good spot.


this is true but i have never worked out why

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#1380043 - 21/06/2016 11:06 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Fonzie Offline
Cloud Gazer

Registered: 12/07/2015
Posts: 9
Loc: Adelaide Hills
I should have had a closer look at the chart you posted - it does show it as the 540. What would we need in a lower level event 536...528?

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#1380049 - 21/06/2016 11:58 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
teckert Offline
Weatherzone Moderator

Registered: 27/05/2001
Posts: 17498
Loc: NE suburbs, Adelaide, South Au...
BOM twitter have now indicated possible snow on higher peaks later in the week. NOT convinced by that, I'll wait till the day as I'm not sure it will be quite cold enough.

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#1380053 - 21/06/2016 12:18 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Eevo]
Markus Offline
Weatherzone Moderator

Registered: 02/12/2010
Posts: 2108
Loc: Clare, SA
Originally Posted By: Eevo
Originally Posted By: berga1987
The mid north of SA would probably see snow more consistently year in year out than Mt Lofty. Mt Bryan is a good spot.


this is true but i have never worked out why


Mount Bryan is further inland reducing the moderating effects of the ocean, it's over 200m higher than mount lofty and in the typical SW airstreams, is favoured by streams for precipitation. The best event in recorded history had 7ft deep snow drifts on the mountain.
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#1380057 - 21/06/2016 12:54 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Fonzie]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3585
Loc: Adelaide
Originally Posted By: Fonzie
Wow thatís great Unstable. Thanks for that.
So is the blue line the 540?
I noticed this morning sky weather use the blue line, it showed some possible light falls early Friday - I don't think it was for the Adelaide area though....further north?

I know nothing about the 540 line but I did save a post by Thunderstruck I think it was in 2013 which included this text: "Plus good cold air to boot aloft. 528 thickness goes right over us which is the magic number for snow in the hills. Mid north definitely so. Though I have seen it colder SD. -34C over us the best. Though often I find when it is THAT cold, it is also quite dry. At least this cold air is fairly fresh and moist."
If anyone would like to elucidate further on the 540 or 528 thickness/lines please post!
The blue line isn't the 528 line as far as I know Fonzie - maybe someone familiar with the blue line could give a brief summary of what it is that would be good too.
And if anyone wants to have two days on the big stage in the midday sun you could start a system thread for thursday-friday - now is your chance to get in before someone else does smile
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#1380060 - 21/06/2016 13:16 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Markus]
Eevo Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 02/11/2013
Posts: 1598
Loc: Bridgewater
Originally Posted By: Markus
Originally Posted By: Eevo
Originally Posted By: berga1987
The mid north of SA would probably see snow more consistently year in year out than Mt Lofty. Mt Bryan is a good spot.


this is true but i have never worked out why


Mount Bryan is further inland reducing the moderating effects of the ocean, it's over 200m higher than mount lofty and in the typical SW airstreams, is favoured by streams for precipitation. The best event in recorded history had 7ft deep snow drifts on the mountain.


but it's further north and a cold air pool is less likly to penetrate.
or is that outranked by the lack of ocean moderation and its height?

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#1380075 - 21/06/2016 16:16 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Seira Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 27/08/2003
Posts: 7092
Loc: Adelaide Hills.
The 540 thickness line, as far as I'm aware, is the vertical distance between the 500 and 1000 hPa isobaric height contours. It means 5400 metres between these two contours, in the vertical. If this vertical air column is cooled down enough, it will reach the dewpoint. Depending on what the dewpoint is, and how quickly the air cools, this could mean cloud, rain, hail or snow smile .
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#1380100 - 21/06/2016 18:09 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
kgb007 Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/12/2010
Posts: 1511
Loc: Hope Valley, SA
430am Friday morning.

Capture by Kym Burton, on Flickr

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#1380124 - 21/06/2016 23:18 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Eevo]
Markus Offline
Weatherzone Moderator

Registered: 02/12/2010
Posts: 2108
Loc: Clare, SA
Originally Posted By: Eevo
but it's further north and a cold air pool is less likly to penetrate.
or is that outranked by the lack of ocean moderation and its height?


From what I've noticed over the years, the extra latitude northwards to the Mount Bryan area doesn't seem to make a huge difference. In the best cold events, more often than not it comes up from the ssw, so 850 temperatures hardly vary between the Lofty area and Mount Bryan area once the cold pool pushes through, add in the cooling effect as it traverses more than 100km of land, plus the 220m altitude gain over lofty (which can be up to 2 degrees difference in dry adiabatic lapse rate scenarios) and you have a recipe for snow. Sometimes the 850ies can be even cooler up there if it wraps up and around from the west. This coming event though, the air rapidly cools to the south as the coldest air is slung off to the east (at least in the uppers). I remember being on the summit up there and it was -1.5, while Mount Lofty was sitting on 4 degrees. Likewise, there's been snow in Hallett (600m), while Mount Lofty could hardly manage a flake, and this comes back down to the inland + decent streams favouring the Hallett/Mount Bryan area.
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#1380125 - 22/06/2016 00:54 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Eevo Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 02/11/2013
Posts: 1598
Loc: Bridgewater
cheers for the lessons smile

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#1380132 - 22/06/2016 08:12 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Fonzie Offline
Cloud Gazer

Registered: 12/07/2015
Posts: 9
Loc: Adelaide Hills
Hi Markus,
If the 850mb is at or below freezing and the lower layer is 1-2 above freezing can it still snow?
Thanks

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#1383447 - 28/07/2016 02:39 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3585
Loc: Adelaide
2016 July 12th Snowfall Part 1.

In the days preceding Tuesday 12th July 2016 anticipation grew that a very cold airmass forecast to cross the coast into southern South Australia on that day would bring some snow showers at least to the highest summits in the southern ranges.

On Tuesday morning 12th the very cold airmass from the deep south duly arrived over southern South Australia, accompanied by winds to gale-force in coastal and southern districts and widespread shower activity in the south. Small hail was widely reported, and showers of/with snow and/or sleet were extensively reported from Mount Lofty, and I saw one or more reports from Stirling, the summit of Mt Barker, Echunga, Burra, and hill country north and south of Burra.

The prospect of some snow falling was widely reported in the media for several days before the event and on the summit of Mt Lofty hundreds of hopeful visitors came and went during the day. I was on the summit from about 615 am to very approx 5pm.

In summary, there were occasional showers of hail, and I saw flakes among the hail on two or three occasions and once for a brief period after the hail. Whether these flakes were sleet or snow I was unable to tell. There was only one shower mostly or all of snow, at approximately 310pm, with an entree of wind-driven hail. I guestimated the snowshower lasted about five minutes and then slowly tapered off over the next several minutes.

Looking at videos, I may have underestimated the percentage of flakes in the hail showers preceding the hail-then-snow shower, as the flakes were small and quickly vanished from sight in the windy conditions.

There was at least one more snow shower reported on the summit of Mt Lofty, during the hours of darkness on Tuesday night.

The hail was never dense enough to completely carpet the ground. Hail showers came and went pretty quickly. The snow melted almost immediately on the paved viewing area but did provide a brief appearance of patchy white in combination with the preceding hail in places on the verge where it fell on a grassy and plant-litter ground cover.

Due to the relentless wind which blew all day and was particularly strong during the showers, on the viewing area (where the obelisk is situated) the snowflakes didn't float down but usually were racing downwind as they fell. So the flakes usually don't show up on videos of the fall nearly as clearly as they do when it's snowing with only light to moderate winds. I was never in the car park area on the more sheltered side of the summit building and flakes may have fallen more gently there.

Fortunately for the numerous visitors, the hail showers although fairly brief were quite entertaining for the adults and more so for many of the children, being accompanied by strong winds sending some visitors running for cover and many others emerging from cover to make the most of the experience and take photos and videos.

I spent almost all of my time during the hail showers and the snow shower out on the viewing area with my back to the driving wind. A feature of the sound tracks of my videos that's hard to miss in the background excited screaming of some of the children as they ran about, jumped, posed for photos and videos from their elders, and covered their ears and necks against the beating hail. I didn't get much experience of the ambience in the crowded area under and near the extensive veranda or inside the building but videos taken by others in the veranda area tell of similar excitement there.

In the Mid North snow-chaser Mark Dawson records there was a snow flurry in Burra on Tuesday afternoon. He posted onto the Weatherzone forums "Saw a brief settling of snow, or a mix of snow and hail on the hills north of Burra down to around 700m, with small hail drifts accumulated on the sides of the roads much lower. Some real spanking hail showers and damaging winds, but nothing quite like the hills saw today. It did however, on the tail end of particularly nasty cell snow in Burra itself, which is only around 500m above sea level so it shows the coldness was there, just not the moisture unfortunately. Other reports I've heard, are near and around Mount Crawford, and a brief period on Lofty itself, though I'm sure many other peaks would have seen the odd flurry."

He posted onto Facebook on July 12 at about 1:05pm that the Burra hills above 700m look to have a very light dusting of snow and cautioned that he couldn't be sure it was snow as there were small hail drifts on the roadside and it was sleeting.

Stuarte Milde posted onto Facebook that it snowed for 5 minutes near Princess Royal station just south of Burra.

"Burra and Goyder Visitor Information Centre" posted onto their Facebook page here at 142pm July 12th: "Light snow is falling in Burra today!" along with two photos showing some whitish patches on the ground in a park. Whether it's predominantly snow or hail-sleet on the ground I'm unable to tell. In "comments" in this thread Coralie White posted at July 12 at 3:00pm "Can now say I have seen snow at Burra - very, very light, but it was snow!!"

I've seen an impressive photo of a light snow or hail or sleet cover on the upper slopes of Mt Cone north or Burra and I may be in a position to include it here in due course.

Due to the very inclement weather on the day I'd be a bit surprised if anyone was on the summit of Mt Bryan, or at least not for any length of time, so whether it snowed on the summit or on the Mt Bryan Range more generally, we may never know. It seems likely snow did fall on the summit and the higher parts of the range given it did fall in much lower Burra. This also applies to the higher ground and summits elsewhere in the Mid-North.

I haven't seen any records of snow from the Flinders Ranges but there's plenty of summits and high ground there which was above the forecast snow level of 500 metres so again it may well have fallen in various locations without anyone reporting it.

If I find any more reports or photos relevant to snow in the Mid-North or the Flinders Ranges I'll add them, but as at 130pm 25th July the above are the only ones I've seen to date.

Before I post any other videos taken on the day, the video below by Michael Sparrow during the snowshower on Mt Lofty shows the nature of the snowflakes in that shower better than any other video I've seen. It was filmed in a location on the summit observation area where the wind was trapped by the building wall and the veranda roof and so some of the snowflakes tended to swirl around relatively slowly. Further out on the observation area the snowflakes were mostly making rapid beelines downwind.

Here's a still from the video showing the size of a sample of flakes collected by an unwitting sampler. We don't know how long the sampler was out in the snow prior to the video being filmed but the snowflakes falling during that time seem to be quite small.



To see and watch the snowflakes I recommend going to the video on YouTube and watching it fullscreen here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fm5Vg7FAp8E



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#1383470 - 28/07/2016 10:34 Re: Snow in South Australia [Re: Unstable]
StormCapture Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 19/12/2013
Posts: 1644
Loc: Uleybury
FTR This was MetEye's snow forecast for the 12th July 2016, one of the most packed maps I've ever seen in my life.

It's one day I won't forget as this was the first time I saw snow in SA



Edited by StormCapture (28/07/2016 10:35)

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