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#1208269 - 26/08/2013 06:36 South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
A thread for information about extreme weather events of any kind eg some of the biggest, most dramatic, most unusual, most destructive, record-breaking ... . If you come across or know about an extreme weather event of any kind, maybe you'd like to post about it here.

I don't personally have time to search for events for this thread, but I came across an extreme and dramatic weather event which caused major tidal flooding in some gulf towns on Wednesday 15 August 1934, while reading an article on a snowfall around that time, and thought it would be useful to start a thread for extreme weather events in SA.

See also the thread "Snow in South Australia" where there is information about some of the more extreme snowfall events in SA's history http://forum.weatherzone.com.au/ubbthreads.php/topics/1190687 And there are probably other threads where some extreme weather events have been collated, so if you know of any such threads please post links to them in this thread smile

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#1208270 - 26/08/2013 06:53 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
This is extracts from an article in the Chronicle newspaper reporting on an extreme weather event on and about 15th August 1934, when a very deep low "Tuesday's barometer reading at the Observatory at 1.30 p.m. was 29.12, the lowest figure during the 76 years in which records have been kept" caused prolonged gales resulting in a storm-tide flood in some gulf towns including Port Pirie and Port Augusta. I hope all gulf towns have improved their flood-protection infrastructure since then!

Source: http://trove.nla.gov.au

Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Thursday 16 August 1934 Page 44

Heavy Rain Changes Agricultural Outlook

SOAKING FALLS OVER AGRICULTURAL AREAS Tidal Floods In Port Pirie Tide Bursts Banks At End Of Town HUNDREDS HOMELESS IN DARK Three Feet Of Water Through Hospital FOUR INCHES IN TWO DAYS AT MILLBROOK

Port Pirie was thrown into confusion on Wednesday morning when practically the whole of the residential area of the town was flooded as the result of the phenomenal tide driven up by the gale which had been raging since Tuesday.

Hundreds of families have been driven from their homes; the hospital is flooded to a depth believed to be upwards of three feet; the town is in darkness because of the failure of the electric lighting plant, which rendered rescue work difficult; and telephonic communication is only intermittent This was the most serious consequence of the gales which accompanied Tuesday's rain which drenched the State, and completely dispelled farmers' fears of a bad season. There were phenomenal tides at other Spencer Gulf ports. These flooded Port Augusta, where the streets were under water, aud Port Germein. Earlier on Tuesday the high wind had banked the sea up so that it covered the wharfs at Port Pirie, and the water was forced back through the drains to the streets of the town. Then the banks protecting the low-lying areas suddenly gave way under the pressure and inundated homes over a wide area. The residents were quite unprepared, and few escaped with more than their night attire. Accommodation was found chiefly in one of the hotels. It is believed that everyone reached safety, but on Wednesday morning some parents were anxiously searching for children from whom they had been separated in the confusion The areas affected are several feel under water. The most serious storm damage was that caused by the flooding of Spencer Gulf ports. At Port Augusta the sea flowed into the township, flooding shops in the main street. An old couple had to be rescued in a boat from their home in a low-lying area, and sand-bag barrages were built to keep the water back from business premises. However fierce were the gales — and in some parts the wind reached a velocity of 80 miles an hour — the outstanding feature of the disturbance was the rain, which, providing the necessary subsoil moisture, vastly improved crop prospects. Fanners spoken to made no attempt to conceal their jubilance.

Rain recorded in Adelaide for the 14 days of August is now twice as much as that for the months of August, September, and October in 1914. Tuesday's barometer reading at the Observatory at 1.30 p.m. was 29.12, the lowest figure during the 76 years in which records have been kept. The previous lowest was 29.17 on September 18, 1921. Two years ago Adelaide had its highest reading, when the figure was 30.74 on August 16. ... The Divisional Meteorologist (Mr. Bromley) said that indications were for cold and unsettled weather, with further rain, chiefly over the settled areas. Strong southerly winds of up to gale strength were expected. The centre of the depression had passed over Adelaide, and showers should come with the blustering winds fol lowing. A report from Cummins, received by the Weather Bureau estimated the speed of the wind there at 70 m.p.h. It swung suddenly to the south-west and rocked buildings, doing much minor damage. Huge trees were uprooted and a large wheat shed was unroofed at Yeelanna. Telephone lines had been thrown out of order. The bureau estimated that the wind at 8 p.m. in Adelaide was blowing in gusts at times exceeding 40 m.ph. ...

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91066944
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page8670823
APA citation
Heavy Rain Changes Agricultural Outlook. (1934, August 16). Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954), p. 44. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91066944

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#1208272 - 26/08/2013 07:50 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
bd bucketingdown Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 07/02/2008
Posts: 6050
Loc: Eastern A/Hills SA
There is a book by a local person detailing the worst historical SA events, Unstable. Worth looking at, for sure...
Tony Rogers "Extreme Weather" I have a copy but too busy to send anything atm & for a while...Best to get a copy would be in bookstores.
Then you can chase up further info from the dates. But I am sure there are plenty more extreme events out there also in addition to those mentioned. Cheers


Edited by bd bucketingdown (26/08/2013 07:50)

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#1208293 - 26/08/2013 13:41 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Thanks Ian for that information smile

I just looked the book up on the internet. Google Books says on their website page
http://books.google.com.au/books/about/S...AAJ&redir_esc=y

"South Australia's Extreme Weather:
Its Human Impact
Anthony William Rogers, Tony Rogers, Judy Ferrante, Alan Holmes, Rod Mallard, Paul Lainio
"Australian Meteorological Association, Incorporated, 2009 - Climatic extremes - 194 pages
Heat waves, snowstorms, floods, droughts, tornadoes, rain and hail. South Australia's weather brings everything from idyllic snow to destructive bushfires and death. How do people cope? Sixteen human stories, some never told before, put you there at the time. Produced by The Australian Meteorological Association Inc and the Bureau of Meteorology, this book is about people and exceptional weather, how they cope, how they survive, and sadly, how they sometimes fail to survive. All proceeds are to be donated to the Royal Society for the Blind."

By the way, in reference to Ian's comment "Best to get a copy would be in bookstores. Then you can chase up further info from the dates" Ian obviously missed my comment in my thread-starting post "I don't personally have time to search for events for this thread" wink In case anyone else misses it, I repeat it here: I don't personally have time to search for events for this thread poke It's a place for any members to post on past extreme weather events when they come across them either by chance or by searching them out.

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#1208301 - 26/08/2013 14:40 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
bd bucketingdown Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 07/02/2008
Posts: 6050
Loc: Eastern A/Hills SA
Yes,sorry missed that UNS, by the way...neither have I the time! smile

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#1209170 - 05/09/2013 02:26 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Adelaide's highest ever recorded 24 hour rainfall total

Friday 6th February 1925
Severe thunderstorm over parts of Adelaide!
Daytime deluges and flooding brings chaos to the city.
New 24 hour city rainfall record set that still stands today!
Adelaide 24 hr total to 830am 7th February 557 points (141.5mm), North Adelaide 644 points (163.6mm).
Fireball explosion in Waymouth Street !

Here's a newspaper report of the event, from the Trove website.

Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Saturday 14 February 1925 Page 47
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/87512364

TROPICAL DOWNPOUR IN ADELAIDE

A Record Fall of Over Five Inches in
Two and a Quarter Hours.
Streets Running Like Rivers.

On Friday morning of last week an electrical storm, which had been hovering about the State for several days, directed its energies upon the metropolitan area where the wish for rain had been general, and visited upon the residents such a deluge as they had never before experienced. The downpour began in earnest a little before noon, and when it ceased temporarily at about 12.30, most people had had enough rain to surfeit them, and summer deluges went out of favor. After a brief respite, in which business was suspended while the people in some of the main streets enjoyed the spectacle of hardy persons of both sexes wading through water varying, in depth from an inch to 18 inches, another cloud-burst occurred, even worse than the previous one, and everybody had to turn to in earnest and make what efforts— puny though they were in comparison with the task which they were set—they could to stem the torrent of water that poured through all parts of the city. For the rest of the day and far into the night shopkeepers and others were clearing basements of water that had flowed in through light wells and down basement steps, and doing what they could to salvage stock which had been soaked by water from overflowing gutters and downpipes. The devastation was general and very serious, but everybody faced the misfortune in a philosophical spirit. No storm such as that of Friday has been recorded since the Meteorological Department first registered rainfall in 1839, only a little over two years after the province was proclaimed. The rain was accompanied by lightning of the most vivid kind, and peals of thunder close at hand. Many suburban residents, particularly women, were terrified by the severity of the storm, but in the city streets few people took much heed of the lightning. They had other things to occupy their minds, for they soon became wet through or in peril of a drenching, even though sheltering under balconies or verandahs. The rain was so heavy that few gutters and downpipes were able to carry off the accumulation of water on the roofs, and the flooding of the balconies and the leaking of verandahs often made it nearly as wet under cover as in the open. Moreover, the street drainage system could not cope with the deluge, and water encroached upon the footpaths and often flowed over them into shops and office basements. The noise of the falling rain was so loud that only the most resonant claps of thunder were noticed, the roar of the rain upon the roofs, mingling with and resembling the rumbling of the thunder. The storm centre appeared to be over the city and a little towards North Adelaide, where the gauge reached 6 in. of rain from the two cloudbursts. The departmental rain-gauge at West-terrace may not have registered an equivalent to the maximum fall in South Adelaide, for in a thunderstorm there is often a variation of intensity in less than half a mile. Some alarm was occasioned at about 12.30 p.m. in Waymouth-street, when a fireball fell on to the electric light wires in front of the premises occupied by the Gladioli Furniture Company, and the contact with the wires caused a terrific explosion, which bystanders declared to be louder than the heaviest peal of thunder heard during the storm. The force of the explosion lifted eight men, who were standing in the doorway, off their feet. The electric wires were damaged, and all current was cut off until between 2.30 and 3 p.m., when repairs were effected. The fireball appeared to be about 12 in. in diameter. North Adelaide debouched torrents of water upon Bowden, where a scene of confusion and devastation occurred during the Wakefield-street a river flowed through Victoria-square and along Grote-street, which was awash from side to side. This water poured out upon the West park lands, across the railway goods yards, and through several extensive factories on the western side of the railways, afterwards increasing the already big flood in Hilton. A creek flowing through Cowandilla overflowed its banks and penetrated several houses in the neighborhood of the corner of the Hilton-road and Bagot-avenue. Keswick people, too, suffered severely, for the rain soon overtaxed the capacity of the creek running through that suburb, and it is reported that water flowed through a number of houses two or three feet deep.

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87512364
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page8600850
APA citation
TROPICAL DOWNPOUR IN ADELAIDE. (1925, February 14). Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954), p. 47. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87512364

Now another section on the same page of the Chronicle

Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Saturday 14 February 1925 Page 47
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/87512362

THE CITY UNDER WATER.

Mr. E. Bromley, the Government Meteorologist, in discussing the rain with a representative of "The Chronicle," said the fall was unprecedented in weather records of the State. It was the result of a monsoonal disturbance which had been gradually working up for some days, and spread across the whole of the State. During the last day or two rain had fallen in the western and northern parts of the State. The Adelaide plains had missed this fall, but the weather had since made up for it with a vengeance. The downfall was characteristic of electrical conditions, and was variable in the country. One station reported three inches, but another a short distance away received only four points. Such a rain might be purely local. In North Adelaide the registration was 6 inches. The rain started gradually in the city about 10 o'clock, and eased off for a while. It set in heavily about 11.45, and between that hour and 2 o'clock, covering a period of 2¼ hours, exactly five inches fell. The heaviest period was between 1.42 and 1.49 o'clock. In that time 66 points fell in seven minutes, which was at the rate of 5½ inches an hour. Between 1 o'clock and 1.36 p.m. 1.59 inches fell in 30 minutes, which was at the rate of 3.18 inches an hour. From the time the rain set in fairly heavy at a quarter to 12 until 2 o'clock, the registration was exactly five inches. The aggregate for the day up till then was 553. Prior to yesterday the heaviest known fall was on March 6, 1878, when for the 24 hours 3½ in. of rain was recorded. It was a storm of a similar character to that which had just occurred. It could not, however, be compared with five inches in a little over two hours. Then there was a heavy downpour on February 13, 1913, when 2.15 in. was registered between 3.58 and 6.40 p.m. The bulk of that fall was between 4 and 4.45 p.m., totalling 1.88 in. This caused serious floods in the Adelaide streets. On the present occasion the fall was 1.59 in. in half an hour, with a total of 2.25 in. in 49 minutes. Yesterday's fall was far heavier in every way. There had been nothing like it as far as records went back to 1839. Anyone who wanted to go back farther, and say that there was then a bigger fall, said Mr. Bromley, with a smile, could have the benefit of the doubt. As far as the thunderstorm was concerned there was nothing by which its intensity could be measured. That could be well left to the imagination. The rainstorm, however, was undoubtedly the worst ever experienced in Adelaide, as was proved by the records.

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87512362
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page8600850
APA citation
THE CITY UNDER WATER. (1925, February 14). Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954), p. 47. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87512362

Now an excerpt from another newspaper article, which includes the 24 hour rainfall figures for Adelaide and North Adelaide

Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Saturday 7 March 1925 Page 41

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/87511119#pstart8601060

"WEATHER NOTES FOR FEBRUARY."

The article includes this text:

"During the 24 hours ending 8.30 a.m. on the 7th, North Adelaide recorded 644 points, and Adelaide 557 points. Of the latter amount, 500 points (5 inches) fell on the 6th, between 11.48 a.m. and 2 p.m. Such a phenomenal deluge was unprecedented at Adelaide since records began in 1839, the previous highest 24 hours' total being 350 points."

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87511119
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page8601060
APA citation
WEATHER NOTES FOR FEBRUARY. (1925, March 7). Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954), p. 41. Retrieved September 5, 2013, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87511

Note: The source of the text of these newspaper articles is the Trove website. I've corrected Troves' electronic versions of the articles to a high level of accuracy, but it's certain that some minor errors and perhaps isolated not-so-minor errors remain. Please do your own checks on Trove if you wish to publish any of the above text from newspaper articles in a history or for any other purpose where you need 100% accuracy.


Edited by Unstable (05/09/2013 02:29)
Edit Reason: minor

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#1209297 - 06/09/2013 08:19 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Here are the surface charts dated 5-2-25 (Thursday the day before the storm) and 6-2-25 (Friday the day of the storm) published in The Register newspaper. The low quality is due to these being images of electronic copies of the newspaper and not images of photos of the newspaper.

Surface chart dated 5-2-25
Source The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Friday 6 February 1925 Page 13
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/63736720



Surface chart dated 6-2-25
Source The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Saturday 7 February 1925 Page 6
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/63738288


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#1214848 - 23/10/2013 20:26 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: bd bucketingdown]
macbenoy Offline
Cloud Gazer

Registered: 22/10/2013
Posts: 14
Loc: South Australia
The book took only a smattering of significant weather events and is not a comprehensive listing. The author, Tony Rogers (and others) has also authored three other books on weather in SA. You can see them listed at www.ameta.org.au. The books are available through the Royal Society for the Blind (this is not a solicitation - the I.P. is gifted to the RSB which makes a small profit on sales).

Tony and I run volunteer projects for the Australian Meteorological Association (hosted by the Bureau of Meteorology). The projects concentrate on historical weather in SA and Australia in general. My project is detailed in Wikipedia under "charles todd weather folios".


Edited by macbenoy (23/10/2013 20:27)
_________________________
The further backward you look, the further forward you can see.

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#1215084 - 26/10/2013 05:29 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Thanks Macbenoy for posting about the book and about your Charles Todd weather folios project. If I'd ever heard of folios I've long since forgotten it. Looks like a really valuable resource for anyone researching or exploring SA and Australian weather during the period covered by the project. Keep up the good work!

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#1215089 - 26/10/2013 08:01 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
bd bucketingdown Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 07/02/2008
Posts: 6050
Loc: Eastern A/Hills SA
Would have been good to see the upper level charts but I guess there were not any round those days!
Probably a decent upper cut-off low to west of Adelaide, with good N-NW Jetstream, with SE exit region over us, and with the high tropical humidity Ne'lies surface coming down from QLD and Coral Sea areas to the east of the deep surface easterly trough. The best situation for storms in Adelaide


Edited by bd bucketingdown (26/10/2013 08:01)

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#1229281 - 05/01/2014 07:39 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Severe hailstorm with lightning, Adelaide, October 1854.

Here's a personal account of a severe hailstorm in 1854 and some of the damage done, by F. Pearce, Postmaster, O'Halloran Hill, who experienced the storm while "I was on the road home from Adelaide". He describes the hailstones where he experienced the storm as "... without the slightest exaggeration, as large as walnuts" and he reported numerous windows being broken in the path of the storm and crops in the area being destroyed.

His account is in the form of a letter to the editor of the South Australian Register newspaper dated October 11th 1854, and the date of the storm is given as the 2nd October 1854: "... the hailstorm of the 2nd instant ...". This is a copy of the letter from the Trove website. I spent about an hour making corrections to the Trove electronic version by comparing it with their image of the letter in a copy of the newspaper. There are doubtless still a few minor errors in the text and also there are some words that aren't sufficiently clear to correct. Anyone wishing to publish my corrected version please do check it against the Trove image first and look for further errors :-)

We can but imagine what damage this storm may have done if it ploughed a path through today's suburbia. My guess is that the hailstones would have broken today's typical house windows on the sides of houses facing the wind. I don't know whether it would have broken car windscreens, dented cars and broken roof tiles. One of the benefits of the motor car not having being invented was there were none around to be damaged. A similar storm today could cause tens of millions of dollars damage.

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Friday 13 October 1854 Page 3.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49205539

THE RECENT HAILSTORM.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE REGISTER.

Sir— I have left it thus long before informing you of the effect of the hailstorm of the 2nd instant, upon the crops and gardens about this neighbourhood, that I may be able to give you as true an account as I could collect.

For my own part I was on the road home from Adelaide, and had reached as far as Sladden's Cross (about a mile south of the Forest Inn), when it came on to rain, and such rain as I never have seen before ; in fact it came down in a sheet, for your could not call it drops. The first part of the storm the wind was from the west, but when the hail began it chopped round, and blew north, perhaps one or two points to east of north. The hailstones were, without the slightest exaggeration, as large as walnuts.

Observe, where I stood during the storm, was about 3¾ miles from town, and when I got to the Hand and Heart, distant five miles, I found they had had no hail whatever.

At the new Sturt Bridge I found a large limb of a tree had been blown on to the entrance of the bridge. The crops on either side of the new road beivg formed at this.place were not injured at all. At the Flagstaff Inn the "look-out" at the top of the building had b.en blown right over the road, into the creek adjoining. When I got home (12 miles), I found that all I had seen before was but trifling to what had been experienced at my own door.

The church which adjoins my place had had nearly every square broken in the west window, although there is a piece of canvas or calico strained on the outside; but such had been the size and force of the hailstones, that they had done execution through the covering. I had two flocks of goslings, ab ut a month old, completely battered to death, with the exception of two. Such had been the force with which they had been struck, that they were bleeding from several parts of the body. In the creek at the back of my place I have since found several birds; two were hawks : these, doubtless, were struck down by the hail.

In this neighbourhood the storm appears to have gone from about N.W. by W. to S.E. by E., and was not more than about a half or two thirds of a mile in width, and the 12-mile- post from Adelaide appears to have been the centre.

The principal sufferers are — Mr. W. Thomson, Mr. Wauchope, Major O'Halloran, my- self, Mr. Thoa Young, and Mr. Douglass. The last-named had a splendid crop, and such was the havoc that he has commenced ploughing the land. The hail came with such force that it cut the corn clean off, and now at this time you can experience that delightful odour that you meet with in a hayfield during the process of haymaking. In Hurtle Vale also the loss will be very great, the crops being all cut down ; and the flood of rain destroyed a large quantity of potatoes, having washed them right out of the gullies they were growing in. Alih-ugh Mr. Reynolds's farm is close to Hurtle Vale, still he has suffered but little in comparison. Mr. Wauchope had a large draught mare struck by the lightning, and killed ins antaneously. A cow belonging to Mr. T. Ward was also struck, and lived till last Saturday, when it died, after having been subject to great torture.

I was looking at the back door of my house a day or two ago, and I was surprised to see the deep indentations that were made in the wood (deal), and on the arri es I found large pieces chipped out. The gardens have suffered very much ; in fact, on the morning after the storm it was impossible to see anything but the mould; the tops of everything had been taken off as close as though sheep had been graz:ng -n them : even the bark was taken off on the weather sid . Major O'Halloran had a beautiful crop of wheat (the season considered), about thirty acres, on the eastern side of the South-road, which is completely spoiled ; altogether the loss to him I believe he estimates at about £1.200 or £1,400. Mr. Douglas speaks of £700 Mr. Brooks, of Hurtle Vale, had all his windows broken, and the crops mown completely; on the whole, the mishief done is very serious ; all the hay and corn crops being destroyed. I have not heard whether it reached Cherry Gardens or not, but as that place is in a line with Hurtle Vale, I should expect it would. Even the grass was cut off, so that where it was most violent there is not a blade of grass to be seen. In the churchyard of O'Halloran Hill the ground is like a man's chin fresh shaved.

I am, Sir, &c,
F. PEARCE, Postmaster.
O'Halloran Hill, October 11, 1854.

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49205539
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page4149928
APA citation
THE RECENT HAILSTORM. (1854, October 13). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 3. Retrieved January 5, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49205539

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#1229502 - 06/01/2014 06:55 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
More on "Severe hailstorm with lightning, Adelaide, October 1854".

This is a newspaper article reporting some of the damage done in the centre of Adelaide (part of a longer article titled "LORD DERBY'S TITLE DEEDS."

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Tuesday 3 October 1854 Page 3.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49200273

Unprecedented Hailstorm. — The weather, which had long been so unusually dry as to excite much apprehension among the cultivators of the soil, underwent a very welcome change at an early hour on Monday morning ; and during the greater part of yesterday, showers, more or less heavy, occurred, with alternations of thunder and lightning. The state of the atmosphere was oppressive until about 5 o'clock p.m., when a very agreeable coolness supervened, and after a prelude of "indurated drops," Adelaide was visited by the most extraordinary hailstorm within the remem' rance of the "oldest inhabitan ." Our own office was assailed, bat escaped with the fracture of some dozen panes of glass, having a western aspect; but our neighbours and friends were not so fortunate, and up to a late hour we were in the continuous receipt of lists of damages more or less calamitous. Among other sufferers we may mention the Messrs. Waterhouse, whose handsome premises suffered the loss of some 50 panes; Mr. Ryley, of the Beehive, who has, we perceive, not only to contemplate the loss of fractured sishes in his western front, but the damage of merchandi-e within. At the coach manufactory of Messrs. Carvosso and Barlow, in Hindmarsh-square, the damage done was considerable, including 20 very large panes of glass broken in the show-room and about the same number in the dwelling-house. Such was the violence of the storm that one of McDonald's large Scotch omnibuses which stood in the yard was partially lifted by it, and, although not blown down, the oscillation was for some time such as to cause alarm for the safety of the locomotive property. The fall of hail was intense and unremitting ; and many of the hailstones which fell within our own precincts measured an inch in diameter; in short, "the fall" is a misnomer, for it was a fell discharge at an angle of about 45 degrees, fatal to skylights and damaging to all glazed premises having a western aspect and only panes of the usual thickness. The damage done to the windows in the western front of Trinity Church is very extensive; the glazing destroyed at the Exchange is said to be 130 to 150 panes; the windows of the Municipal Council Chamber was damaged to such an extent that His Worship and the members of the Corporation present left their seats, and the deliberations were for some time sus- tended ; and the damage ascertained in city and suburban gardens, and reported to us, was such as to cause this part of our report to be deferred. The spacious and elegant ballroom, at the Prince of Wales, Angas-street, was in course of preparation for an entertainment by the Deutsche Liedertafel, of which a dramatic represention was to form a principal part. The worthy landlord and his assistants were in terrupted in their labours by the Spirit of the Stor.n, which for a brief space enacted a real Tempest on the extempore stage, and made considerable havoc among " the properties." When the " ruffian blasts " ceased, the debris were removed and the room restored with great celerity, but the broken windows remained, and admitted during the evening many airs which, as a friend remarked, were certainly not included in the programme. At the Gaol the damage was most extensive, seven windows in the principal front having suffered severely ; the windows in the towers, also ; and the damagj being estimated as nothing short of a hundred panes. A gentleman just returned from White's Bridge, Munno Para, informs us that much glass was broken in that district, and hailstones of an inch and a- quarter in diameter were not uncommon. We await advices from the country districts with much anxiety ; being apprehensive that among the blossoms and early fruits, the peculiar visitation may have been injurious, although thankfully witnessed by those extens ve cultivators whose broad acres under crop were thirsting for " the latter rain."

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49200273
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page4149866
APA citation
LORD DERBY'S TITLE DEEDS. (1854, October 3). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 3. Retrieved January 6, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49200273

As with the previous article, I spent about an hour making corrections to the Trove electronic version by comparing it with their image of the article from an actual copy of the newspaper. There are doubtless still a few minor errors in the text and also there are some words that aren't sufficiently clear to correct. Anyone wishing to publish my corrected version please do check it against the Trove image first and look for further errors :-)

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#1229729 - 06/01/2014 18:07 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Max Record Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 18/04/2009
Posts: 1668
Loc: Adelaide
10th of October 1870, also from that page is other correspondents from Balaklava, Hummocks, Freeling and Greenock reporting about the same storm:

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/92289592

WHITWARTA. October 10.
At 3 o'clock on Saturday afternoon we had a
severe storm of hail At first the thunder was
very heavy, and was accompanied by very vivid
chain lightning. Then a little rain fell, followed
by hailstones about the size of large grapes, and
subsequently they came like pigeons' eggs and
turnip radishes. Some of the stones resembled
in size the small balls that children play with.
Some were large pieces of ice ; I measured one,
and it was over six inches in girth, and
weighed more than one ounce and three-quarters
after it had laid some time on the ground. I
weighed many of them; some were over one
and a half ounce; and some were nearly two
ounces in weight. Had they been gathered up
as soon as they fell I have no doubt that many
would have weighed over two ounces. The hail
storm came up from the west, and the clouds
were moving rapidly about, some towards the
east, and the bottom current of clouds were
going west. The wind being from the east met
the hailstorm, and broke the power of it, and
caused the hailstones to fall perpendicularly.
Had the wind been with the hailstorm, instead
of meeting it, the damage must have been fearful
The ground here was covered with hail
stones. No windows were broken, but some
poultry was killed. The storm did not last more
than half an hour. After the hailstorm sub
sided It commenced raining very heavily, and
this continued for about an hour. On the 9th we
had a showery night, with heavy rain in the
morning. It rained heavily till night. This is
a great check to those that have commenced
haymaking.
_________________________
2019: 185.8mm
2018: 329.2mm
2017: 478.0mm
2016: 680.0mm
2015: 392.8mm
2014: 450.4mm
2013: 470.6mm
2012: 426.8mm
2011: 518.2mm
2010: 549.4mm
2009: 459.2mm
Yearly Average: 460mm

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#1229888 - 07/01/2014 08:30 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Good find there Max smile Perhaps "put all loose poultry indoors" should be added to the standard severe thunderstorm warnings for SA. Sounds like another hailstorm where it was fortunate motor cars hadn't been invented. Also it's good to read accounts from careful observers who have measured the size and/or weight of the hailstones.

Speaking of hailstorms and cars, there is a thread "Hailstorm in South Australia in 1990's" here http://forum.weatherzone.com.au/ubbthrea...a_i#Post1227508 started by Macgyver, which includes newspaper articles and some photos on a severe hailstorm on January 21st 1991 across parts of southern SA. I haven't had time to read the reports but it sounds like it could have been one of the more long-lived and damaging hailstorms in SA's recorded history.

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#1230116 - 08/01/2014 05:54 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
More on "Severe hailstorm with lightning, Adelaide, October 1854".

Snippets relating to the Adelaide hailstorm of 2nd October 1854, from an article mostly on unrelated matters:

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49197739

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Friday 6 October 1854 Page 3.

"Accident. — In the storm on Monday, the 2nd instant, Mr. Randall, of Houghton, was struck down by the lightning, but sustained no bodily injury, although a gum-tree, only a few yards distant, was shattered into numberless fragments by the electric fluid.

The Weather and the Crops. — The change of weather on Monday last, which resulted in an unprecedented hailstorm in Adelaide, was productive only of genial showers in many parts of the country, the effect of which will be greatly to revive the crops and pastures, which had assumed a very sickly appearance from the long-continued drought. ... "

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49197739
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page4150034
APA citation
SELECT COMMITTEES. (1854, October 6). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 3. Retrieved January 8, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49197739

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#1230123 - 08/01/2014 07:28 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
The beginning of the South Australian press - 1836 and 1837.

On the SA Memory website http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au on the page http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=1467 it says:

"The history of the South Australian press begins in June 1836 when partners Robert Thomas and George Stevenson printed the first issue of the South Australian gazette and colonial register in London, shortly before the two men set sail with their families for the experimental colony. With them was the equipment needed to set up a newspaper in the 'wilderness'. Due to various setbacks it was a little over a year before the second issue of the newspaper appeared, printed in a rush hut off Hindley Street - in modern day Register Street. In 1838 their first competitor, the Southern Australian, was established, heralding a golden age of decentralised, prolific newspaper output. By 1846, just ten years after the Europeans' arrival, there were five newspapers serving the infant colony. At any period from the mid 1860s to the end of the nineteenth century there were between 17 and 23 newspapers serving metropolitan readers - as well as a growing number of country newspapers."

On the Trove website the second issue is dated Saturday 3 June 1837. It says here http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/31749646
"THE COLONIAL REGISTER. SATURDAY, JUNE 3, 1837
AFTER an interval of nearly twelve months the second number of the AUSTRALIAN GAZETTE makes its appearance in its own country."

So as far as I can determine, a search for weather-related items in a South Australian newspaper printed in South Australia, can go no further back than the above second issue of the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, dated Saturday 3 June 1837. The rest, as they say, is history.

Putting 1836 into historical context for South Australia, on the page http://www.familyhistorysa.info/timeline.html of the website "Family History South Australia", for 1836 it says in part:

"The South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register newspaper founded (1st issue published & printed in England 18 June).
1st permanent pioneer settlers in large numbers arrived at Kangaroo Island on 27, 30 July and 16 August aboard the Duke of York, Lady Mary Pelham and John Pirie.
20 August: Light arrived with other settlers at KI aboard the Rapid.
5 September: Light began his exploration of the areas proposed as possibilities for the capital of SA.
14 November: 1st pioneer settlers arrived on the mainland at Holdfast Bay aboard the Africaine (after its 1st arrival at KI).
20 November: 1st school opened at Kingscote, KI.
17 December: Light chose the site for the capital, to be named Adelaide after King William IV's Queen, & its harbour, having rejected the alternatives at Encounter Bay and Pt Lincoln.
28 December: Governor John Hindmarsh and other European settlers arrived aboard the Buffalo (after 1st arrival at Port Lincoln) and Hindmarsh proclaimed the Province of South Australia."

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#1230125 - 08/01/2014 07:33 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Chris #3 Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 08/02/2009
Posts: 1891
Loc: Semaphore SA
Originally Posted By: Unstable
[b]Adelaide's highest ever recorded 24 hour rainfall total
suburban residents, particularly women, were terrified by the severity of the storm.


Lol couldn't get away with that these days.

Love reading these thanks for posting them up. While sometimes maybe a bit loose with facts journalists used to use some pretty colourful and descriptive language.
_________________________
GFS Stormcast by BSCH




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#1230143 - 08/01/2014 09:22 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
kgb007 Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/12/2010
Posts: 1515
Loc: Hope Valley, SA
All great reading, thanks Unstable and other contributors!

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#1230619 - 10/01/2014 10:41 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Tragedy in a field near Kapunda - three killed by lightning, 1860.

South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1867)
Saturday 1 December 1860 Page 3.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/90248833

THE RECENT DEATHS FROM LIGHT-
NING NEAR KAPUNDA.

[From the Northern Star.]

On last Thursday morning, three hale hearty young men left their homes, their wives, and their children, in the best of health and in excellent spirits, to make their hay—to garner in the crop which a bountiful Almighty had provided for their support and main- tenance. They left their homes at an early hour, and all three were dead at 11 o'clock—summoned, " unhouseled, unanointed, unannealed" to meet their God!

They were engaged on their farm, at Bagot's Head Station, about eight miles from Kapunda, hay-making —turning over the newly-mown hay with forks, when a thunderstorm came on, and five men who were all working in the same field were struck as if by something, and felled to the earth. Two of these men (one named John Hill) though stunned for an instant, soon recovered, arose, and ran towards their homes in a state of stupid bewilderment. Not so the other three; they, alas ! were felled never more to rise.

When the alarm spread the three men were found to be quite dead. The bodies of two of them were very much blackened, while the third was not blackened at all, with the exception of two or three marks or stains on his body. The unfortunate men had been struck by lightning. Their clothing was shivered, cut, and torn, as if dragged literally into shreds ; while the nails in the heels of their boots presented the appearance of having been melted—fused by the shock.

Neither of the two survivors remember anything of the occurrence—they cannot say whether lightning was flashing or not ; they think they had heard some distant thunder ; but have no recollection of any unusual peal. They cannot describe their own feeling when thrown down; they were struck senseless by something, and in an instant, as they think, they rose again and ran away towards home.

Such is the melancholy, the terrible story of death of three of our own people,well known and respected in Kapunda, which we have to lay before our readers to-day—such the note of warning which we have to announce to the world.

To say that the melancholy event had spread gloom over the district would but poorly depict the state of feeling which this dreadful catastrophe excited. We shall never forget one scene in the story of this tragic occurrence. We witnessed yesterday morning the departure from Kapunda, of a horse dray—bearing away three coffins for the deceased. We witnessed the emotion, the silent sorrow of those close by—we also heard the wild cry of a female relative, who accidentally had become a spectator of the scene, and who stood close by us while the mournful conveyance moved slowly along.

The three men were of one family—two brothers, and one brother-in-law—as follows :—Thomas Ryan, aged 26, married, leaving a wife and three children ; Rody Young, brother-in-law to Ryan, aged 22, married, leaves a wife and two children ; James Young, aged 14 years, brother to Rody Young. The father of the Youngs resides in Carrington-Street, Adelaide, and was sent for by telegram immediately on the occurrence becoming known. The funeral took place at the Catholic chapel, St. John's, near Kapunda, yesterday afternoon. It was numerously and respectably attended. It was a sorrowful cortege, and will long be remembered as the cause of great and lasting gloom over our district.

Mr. Brown, S.M., held an inquest on the bodies on Thursday afternoon—when a verdict of "Death by the visitation of God through lightning" was recorded.

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article90248833
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page8357278
APA citation
THE RECENT DEATHS FROM LIGHTNING NEAR KAPUNDA. (1860, December 1). South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1867), p. 3. Retrieved January 10, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article90248833

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#1244747 - 27/02/2014 02:21 Re: South Australian weather history - some extreme weather events [Re: Unstable]
Unstable Offline
Weatherzone Addict

Registered: 09/01/2007
Posts: 3591
Loc: Adelaide
Meadows, September 22 1864 - big hailstorm, and tipsy mailman loses horse and mail - probably an ancestor of Hillsrain wink

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Thursday 29 September 1864 Page 3.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39123679

MEADOWS.
[From our own Correspondent.]
Meadows, September 22.

Some of the inhabitants of this township were somewhat alarmed by a man bringing the mail horse and bags back to the Meadows Post-Office about 6 o'clock this morning. He stated that he found him feeding on the road near Mr. W. Hall's, about a mile and a half from here ; but he could see nothing of the mailman. The Postmaster here immediately dispatched a messenger to Bull's Creek and Finniss with the mails, and another man on one of his own horses in search of the mail-man, who, it was feared, had either fallen or been thrown off his horse, as he was tipsy when he left the Meadows Post-Office. It appears that, as was supposed, he had either fallen or was thrown off, and the horse had got away from him ; and he, instead of giving information at the next Post- Office (which he passed after the accident) went right home, leaving the horse and Her Majesty's mails to the tender mercies of whoever might chance to drop across them. And it was not until the messenger previously mentioned had delivered the Bull's Creek mail, and was a considerable distance on his road to the Finniss, that he met a boy in search of the horse and mails. This affair has created a little sensation, as it is well known that considerable sums of money are sent through the post on this route at times.

I herewith enclose a rough sketch of some of the hailstones picked up by me on Tuesday night last after the hailstorm which broke over us be tween 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening. Their dimensions are as follows :— 1½ in. x 1 in., ¾ x ½, 1½ x 1, 1¼ x ¾, 2½ x ¾, and l½ x 1/3. During the day the weather was very sultry. Towards evening the clouds became very black, and the thunder rumbled nearer and nearer, and the lightning became very vivid, but scarcely a breath of air was stirring: then came a few very large drops of rain, and darkness set in, followed by the most remarkable hailstorm I ever witnessed. There was no wind whatever, but the hailstones fell down as straight as possible, completely burying themselves in the soft ground. Some were like solid lumps of ice and as clear as glass, while others resembled lumps of snow, and on falling broke to pieces. I have heard of several being picked up larger than any of those described by me ; but as I did not see them I cannot vouch for the correctness of the statement. One of those I found was a solid lump of ice, weighing about half an ounce. It is very fortunate there was no wind, or the damage to gardens and vineyards would have been immense: but as it is, the injury done is very small. To-day it is rather warm, but the air is delightfully clear.

The crops with but few exceptions are very promising, and the famers are already relaxing their anxious countenances to one of cheerfulness at their improving prospects.

[The diagram mentioned by our correspondent is at our office, and may be seen by those curious in such matters.— Ed

Article identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39123679
Page identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page3915566
APA citation
MEADOWS. (1864, September 29). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 3. Retrieved February 27, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39123679

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