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#1397744 - 19/12/2016 20:01 Earth-System Dynamics and Processes
Seira Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 27/08/2003
Posts: 7024
Loc: Adelaide Hills.
This thread is science- or evidence-based, and a repository for increasing knowledge and understanding of what we know about the science of Earth. This is why I am putting it in this sub-forum smile . It is a discussion of evidence, with links to support claims from science journals and their affiliates. It is not a place to vent, convince, berate, flame or otherwise use language to destabilise debate or discussion beyond what is reasonable. This is not a place for belief systems. It is a place for discovery and insight smile .

Any (evidence-based) views are welcome, without exception.

The discussion can be about the Earth's core, mantle, oceans, continental crust, landmasses, air-masses, the Sun, Moon, Gas Giants, sea creatures, anything. The only difference is a description/valid reason must be provided of how it works, or a link to such information with a description of relevance (qualifying opinion), relating back to the Earth and how it is changing.

This is not a purely weather-related thread - it is a systems-related thread.

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#1404111 - 26/01/2017 16:08 Re: Earth-System Dynamics and Processes [Re: Seira]
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Cloud Gazer

Registered: 25/01/2017
Posts: 3
Loc: Россия
The ebb and flow - the result of the Earth's rotation and whirlpools.

The discovery published in the Russian-German scientific journal "Eastern European Scientific Journal" №3. 2015. Positive review was obtained from the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences..

The waters of lakes, seas and oceans of the Northern Hemisphere rotate counter-clockwise, and the waters of the Southern Hemisphere, rotate clockwise, forming giant vortices ..

It is known, what everything that rotates , including swirls have the property of retaining the gyroscope axis upright in space regardless of the Earth's rotation..

If you look at the Earth from the Sun, whirlpools spinning with the earth overturned, twice a day, making whirlpools precess and reflect on my own tidal wave around the perimeter of the sea..

The waters of the Gulf Maine waters are rotate counter clockwise to form a huge whirlpool, a gyroscope, which reflects the precessing tidal wave around the perimeter of the Gulf of Maine.
A similar scheme tides observed in all lakes, seas and oceans.
Continued: Forum мифи
Приливы и отливы- результат вращения Земли и водоворотов
_________________________
Если лошадь сдохла, слезь

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#1404257 - 27/01/2017 23:15 Re: Earth-System Dynamics and Processes [Re: Seira]
Seira Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 27/08/2003
Posts: 7024
Loc: Adelaide Hills.
The Earth's day-to-night spin is a reason there is a Coriolis Effect/Force at all.

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#1419017 - 29/03/2017 17:45 Re: Earth-System Dynamics and Processes [Re: Seira]
Seira Offline
Meteorological Motor Mouth

Registered: 27/08/2003
Posts: 7024
Loc: Adelaide Hills.
An Expansion of the Previous Post:

Two dynamics that can affect the strength and direction of winds. Both these dynamics can occur anywhere within the lower atmosphere (troposphere and stratosphere). They have additional dynamic effects.

The Coriolis Force (CF):
These dynamics work on wind-streams by directing then more away apart from each other, so they spread out. The more the Coriolis Effect influences wind-streams, the more angled to isobaric contours they will be (up to 90 degrees). As the wind-streams become broader and sparser, their wind-speeds fall, leaving them more open to influences from other atmospheric features which can lead to dramatic changes in [wind] direction.

The CF and inland ridging:
As the CF leads to broader, sparser, slower (lighter) wind patterns, it tends to generate regions of calmer or settled conditions (be they higher in the troposphere, or near the surface). With winds generally moving in a west-to-east progression across the Australian Continental Interior, the interior tends to heat up more, and quicker, than regions closer to larger water bodies. The soil and vegetation surfaces of the interior have a lower heat retention capacity in comparison to those of the surroundings oceans and seas, which means more sensible heat (absorbed by the surface, and derived from kinetic energy [1]) can be radiated into the air. Under the influence of the CF, this heat energy will not move great distances quickly it will more likely sit and accumulate. Per the Idea Gas Law (P*V = n*R*T [2]), if the temperature increases with the number of molecules of gas remaining about the same, the volume within which these molecules interact (collide) will increase. Thus, the density (p = n/V) will fall, and the pressure (P = p*R*T) will increase *.

*For the purposes of this description, the Ideal Gas Law will suffice, though the situation can be more complex smile .

[1]: Specific Heat.
[2]: Ideal Gas Law.

The Pressure-Gradient Force (PGF):
These dynamics work on wind-streams by directing then more towards each other, so they formed narrower, more concentrated, streams. The more the Pressure-Gradient Force influences wind-streams, the more aligned (parallel) to isobaric contours they will be. As the wind-streams become stronger and faster (in roughly the same direction), their wind-speeds increases, meaning they are less prone to dramatic changes in direction.

The PGF and troughing:
As the PGF leads to narrower, more concentrated, stronger wind patterns, it tends to generate regions of troughing and frontal boundaries. As the sensible heat sits and accumulates [see earlier in this post], a pressure and temperature difference develops between the region (or regions) of higher kinetic energy and lower. A statement of the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics [3] states heat tends to naturally move from regions of higher energy, to regions of lower energy. Therefore, regions with higher temperature and pressure will eventually form off-shoots of converging (rather than diverging) winds, hence the development of frontal or trough features.

As converging wind-streams must eventually move somewhere (from where they converge), the result is horizontal or vertical motion both can generate instability within the lower atmosphere. Latitudes contribute to changes in solar-radiation intensity (per square metre of surface), while the effects of the Earths rotation affect the depth the lower atmosphere, thus how much ascending air can cool, and how fast.

[3]: Statement of the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.

The combined effects of the CF and PGF are the Geostrophic Wind balance.
Reference.


Edited by Seira (29/03/2017 17:49)
Edit Reason: Grammar.

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